Thursday, 24 September 2015

Everything about Narendra Damodardas Modi :

Narendra Damodardas Modi was born as the third of the four children to Damodardas Mulchand Modi and Heeraben, in Vadnagar in Mehsana district of erstwhile Bombay State ( present - day Gujarat).
  • He helped his father sell teas at Vadnagar railway station.
  • At the age of 8, Modi began attending RSS' local shakhas where he came in contact with Lakshmanrao Inamdar, often known as his mentor.
  • Modi left his home at the age of 17, for Ramkrishna Mission ashram in Rajkot, to the Belur Math, Kolkata, and then to a Swami Vivekananda's ashram in Almora.
  • 1971 : On returning from the ashram, again he worked in the staff canteen of Gujarat State Road Transport Coporation until he became a full-time campaigner of the RSS.
  • 1975-1977 : During the state of emergency declared by PM Indira Gandhi, when political opponent were jailed and political organisation like RSS, banned. Modi evaded arrest by disguising like a Sikh, and distributed booklets against the central government actions.
  • 1978 : Modi graduated through Distance Education in Political Science from Delhi University.
  • 1983 : Did his Master's degree in Political Science from Gujarat University.
  • November 1995 : Modi was elected National Secretary of BJP and then transferred to Delhi.
  • May 1998 : He  was promoted to the post of  General Secretary of the BJP.
  • First term  (2001-2002): In 2001, as Keshubhai Patel's health failed and his poor handling of the Bhuj Earthquake of 2001 caused Modi's appointment as the Chief Minister of Gujarat on 7 October, 2001.
  • Second term (2002-2007)
  • Third term (2007-2012)
  • Fourth term ( 2012-2014)
  • 2014 General Election : The star campaigner of BJP.
  • Modi won from both seats he contested; defeating Arvind Kejriwal, leader of Aam Aadmi Party, in Varanasi. Madhusudan Mistry of the Indian National Congress in Vadodara ( by a margin of 5.7 lakhs votes)
  • Modi led the BJP -led NDA to a decisive victory in the 16th General Elections in which the ruling Indian National Congress suffered defeat.
  • May 20: Elected as the leader of the BJP parliamentary party.
  • May 20 : appointed as the 16th Prime Minister by India's president.
  • Sworn in as Prime Minister on 26th May 2014 at the Rastrapati Bhavan.

Tuesday, 22 September 2015

President of India

Dr.Rajendra Prasad  ( 1884- 1963):  Independent activist. He was the only President to serve for two terms in office.
Dr.Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) : A prominent philosopher, writer and vice chancellor. His birthday in India is celebrated as India as Teacher day on 5th September.
Dr.Zakir Husain ( 1897-1969) : Vice Chancellor. Nominated as a member of the Upper House of Indian parliament in 1956. Died on 3 May 1969, the first Indian President to die in office.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri ( 1894-1980) : Acting President of India 1969, Vice President of India 1967-1969.
Dr.Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977) : Served as a Minister and elected to Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913-1996) : The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State and only Member of Parliament from Janata Party.
Giani Zail Singh ( 1916-1994) : Chief Minister of Punjab and Union Home Minister in 1980.
R.Venkataraman (1910-2009) : Served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence.
Dr.Shankar Dayal Sharma ( 1918-1999) : Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, and the Union Minister for communications. He also served as Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra.
K.R.Narayanan ( 1920-2005) : Served as India's ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America. He was also Chancellor in several universities besides being the vice-chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Dr.A.P.J.Kalam (1931) : Scientist who played a leading role in development of India's ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs, a writer and a motivator.
Smt.Pratibha Patil (1934) : The first woman to become president of India. The was also the first female Governor of India.
Pranab Mukerjee (1935) : The 13th President , former finance minister and Rajya Sabha Member.

Monday, 21 September 2015

Scotland says "No" to Independence.

The people of Scotland voted on Sept-18,2014 to stay within the United Kingdom -55.3 percent to 44.7 percent. The " No" side won with 2,001,926 votes over 1,617,989 for " Yes". The margin of victory for the Better Together campaign was greater by about 3% than that anticipated by the final opinion polls. Most area voted "No", with only Dundee, Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and West Dunbarton-shire voting "Yes".

For three years, politicians from both sides have been attempting to persuade the people of the North, at times rather vigorously with threats of economic meltdown or increased Westminster oppression, one way or another. In short, there were those who believed an independent Scotland would better meet the needs of the Scottish  people and those who believe complete self rule might inhibit the Scottish people.

Currently, Scotland has its own parliament with a fair degree of authority, but it functions more like a state does within India than an autonomous country.

Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond called for unity and urged the unionist parties to deliver on more powers. He later announced his resignation as First Minister of Scotland.

Bolivia becomes first nation to legalise Child Labour.

Bolivia has become the first country to legalise child labour after a law was signed by Vice-President Alvaro Garcia Linera on July, 2014. The new legislation was first approved by Congress in early July, and the signature from Linera means the age that children can legally work is to lowered from 14 to 10.

Under the new legislation, children above the age of 10 will be allowed to become self-empowered workers as long as they have enrolled in the school and have the permission of their parents. Children over the age of 12 will be permitted to take on contract work, again with parental consent and compulsory school attendance.

The law to lower the age in which children can legally work, is all part of the Bolivian government's plan to help Bolivians living in poverty. Child labour is something that is engrained in Bolivian culture, with a large percentage of the adolescent population having to work. It is estimated that of the total of 1 million of Bolivia's children between the ages of five and 17 currently work, making up 15 per cent of the country's workforce. Even the President, Evo Morales, worked as a 14-year-old herding Llama in his hometown of Isallawi. He is a supporter of the bill and has been quoted in the past as saying that " eliminating work for boys and girls would be like eliminating people's social conscience".

The decision by the government has led to a number of anti-child labour groups condemning the decision, claiming that Bolivia's new legislation goes against international law.

Youngest PM of Italy.

Matteo Renzi, 39, became Italy's youngest prime minister promising a new era of stable government after helping engineer the downfall of his predecessor Enrico Letta, who was blamed for failing to carry out promised reforms. Renzi previously served as the mayor of Florence.

The young politician has presented himself as a clean break with the past in a country blighted by unemplyment,slow growth and chronic political instability.

Upon accepting the role of prime minister, Renzi also unveiled his new 16 member cabinet, naming Pier Carlo Padoan, the chief economist at the organisation for Economic  Cooperation and Development, as the country new finance minister.

With an average age under 48, the 16 member cabinet is one of the smallest and the youngest in recent Italian history. Half its members are women, the highest proportion ever, underlying the image of fresh start on which Renze has building his reputation. Renzi has also taken care to name a low profile list of ministers with a mix of politicians and technocrat which included no figures capable of challenging his control.

Sheikh Hasina becomes Bangladesh PM for third time.

Awami League chief Sheikh Hasina was 0n 12th January 2014 sworn in as prime minister of Bangladesh for the third time along with a 48-member cabinet. The cabinet includes 29 ministers, 17 state ministers and two deputy ministers. This was the third time that Hasina took over as premier in the last two decades since Bangladesh returned to democracy from military rule. Hasina first came to power in 1996 and then defeated Zia in the 2008 elections.

The Awani League party clinched a landslide victory in the Jan 5 parlimantary elections, which was boycotted by the opposition parties. Hasina insists that her victory in the polls was legitimate, despite the elections being boycotted by the opposition BNP and its allies.

Bangladesh's 10th parliamentary elections were held for just 147 of 300 seats in 59 of 64 districts of the country, as 153 candidates, were elected uncontested. According to results from election commission, the Awami League won 232 seats, securing a three-fourths majority.

China to relax its one-child policy.

China is to relax its policy of restricting most couples to having only a single child. In future, families will be allowed two children if one parent is an only child. The proposal follows a meeting of a key decision-making body of the governing Communist Party. Other reforms include the abolition of "re-education through labour" camps and moves to boost the role of the private sector in the economy.

China introduced its one-child policy at the end of the 1970s to curb rapid population growth. But the policy has become increasingly unpopular and that leaders fear the country's ageing population will both reduce the labour pool and exacerbate elderly care issues. By 2050, more than a quarter of the population will be over 65. The one-child policy has on the whole been strictly enforced, though some exceptions already exist, including for ethnic minorities. In some cities, both parents must be only children in order to be allowed to have a second child. In rural areas, families are allowed to have two children if the first is a girl. Other exceptions include ethnic minorities and couples who lack sibling themselves. The policy has meant that one-third of China 1.3 billion citizens cannot have a second child without incurring fine.

Sunday, 20 September 2015

Kerala to Go Dry - Strict No to Alcohol.

The Southern state of Kerala, which has the country's highest alcohol consumption per capita, is moving to become alcohol - free within 10 years. The ruling Congress - Led United Democratic Front in Kerala has decided to shut down over 700 liquor bars attached to hotels below the five star categories and make Sundays - " dry days|". The decision, taken in a meeting of the UDF leadership presided by Chief Minister Oomen Chandy, also marked the resolution of the long drawn feud in the state unit of the Congress and the coalition over the question of renewing licences of 418 bars which were found to be lacking in quality. Chandy said the 418 bars which had been lying closed since April 2014 would not be re-opended.
Regarding the retail sales through the outlets of state Beverages Corporation, the number of such outlets would be wound up 10 per cent every year.
Apart from the existing dry days, which include the first day of every month, all Sundays would be dry days in the State, taking the total liquor holidays to a minimum of 52 a year.
A resident of Kerala typically drinks about 8.3 liotres of alcohol per year, more than double the national average. Rum, Wiskey and brandy  are the state favourite tipples.
Tourism officials worry the ban might hit the most successful industry in a state that markets itself as " God, Own Country". Tourism revenue totaled about $3.8 billion last year.

Hard Fact:
The Decision
  • 730 privately owned liqour bars in Kerala to be closed.
  • Bars to be allowed only in five star hotels from April 1, 2015.
  • 10 per cent to Kerala State Beverages Corporation outlets to be shut down every year until all such units are closed by 2025.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                What the State will lose
  • Rs.1181 crore in taxes is the immediate loss estimated.
  • Rs.1010  crore in sales at Bevco outlets, which means a fall of nearly Rs.825 crores in sales tax and excise duty collections.
  • Rs.375 crore every year, when 10 percent of the Bevco retails outlets are closed down every year.

Impact of Alcohol.
  • 8.3 litres a year is the per capita consumption of alcohol in Kerala. This is highest in India.
  • Habitual drinker spend up to 44 percent of their income on liquor, according to some surveys.
  • 19 to 27 pecent of the hospital beds are inhabited by alcohol and substance-abuse patients.
  • 40 per cent of road accidents are caused by druken driving.
  • Alcoholism is a major cause for domestic violence, divorce cases and sucides.

Supreme Court recognises Third Gender In India- No more Transgender Discrimination.

In a landmark ruling on 15th April 2014, the Supreme Court of India allowed trans-gender people to identify as a third gender and directed the central and state governments to give full legal recognition to them.
The top court was responding to a public interest lawsuit filed by the National Legal Services Authority, which provides free legal services to the poor and the dis-advantaged. The group had argued that treating transgender people as legal non entities, unable to apply for official identification documents, meant that they were deprived of basic human rights.
The court agreed with the organization and directed governments to treat the transgender community as a minority group that is eligible for welfare programmes, health care and employment and help transgender people to become part of mainstream society.
According to one estimate, Inida has about two million transgender people. In India,  acommon term used to describe transgender people, transsexuals, cross-dressers, transvestites is hijra. They live on the fringes of society, often in poverty, because of their gender identity. Most make living by singing, dancing or by begging and prostitution. They face a hugh discrimination and sometimes even hospitals refuse to admit them.
In 2009, India's Election Commission took a first step by allowing transgebders to choose their gender as "other" on ballot forms.
India is the latest of several South Asian countries to recognise a third gender. Neighboring Nepal has added a third gender option to government documents, as have Pakistan and Bangladesh. Germany became the first European country to recognize a third gender in 2013, allowing parents to mark " indeterminste" on birth certificates.
Members of the third gender have played a prominent role in Indian cdulture and were once treated with great respect. They find mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures and were written about in the greatest epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
In medieval India too, they played a prominent role in the royal courts of the Mugal emperors and some Hindu rulers. Their fall from grace started in the 18th century during the British colonial rule when they Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 categorised the entire transgender community as " criminals who were "addicated" to commiting serious crimes. They wer arrested for dressing in women's clothing or dancing or playing music in public places and for indulging in gay sex.

Bharat Ratna for Sachin Tendulkar

Cricket Legend Sachin Tendulkar and top scientist CNR Rao were awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's biggest civilian award.
Sachin, 40, is the youngest recipient of the award. He is also the first sportsperson to be chosen for the honour. Tendulkar bowed out of international cricket after his 200th Test match - 24 years and one day after his first. He played in 664 international matches, scoring 34.357 runs and making 100 centuries. He scored almost 2500 more test runs than the second placed batsman, Ricky Ponting.
Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao, who serves as the head of the scientific Advisory council to the Prime Minister of India, also joins the select list of India's 41 Bharat Ratnas. An international authority on solid state and materials chemistry, the 79 year old scientist has authored about 45 books and 1500 research papers in his career spanning over five decades.
Bharat Ratna ( Jewel of India or Gem of India in English) is the Republic of India's highest civilian award. Until 2011, the official criteria for awarding the Bharat Ratna stipulated it was to be conferred for the highest degrees of national service. This service includes artistic, literary and scientific achievements as well as recognition of public service of highest orders. In December 2011, the government of India modified the criteria to allow sportspersons to achieve the award; since then, the award may be conferred for performance of highest order in any field of human endeavour.
The holder of the Bharat Ratna ranks 7th in the order of precedence; however, the honour does not carry a monetary grant.

Telangana becomes 29th Indian State.

Telangana, India's 29th State, came into being on 2 June 2014 with TRS leader  K. Chandrasekhar Rao as chief minister. The new state became a reality when the Andhra Pradesh Reorgansation Bill 2014, which got Parliament's approval on February 20, despite strong opposition from Seemandhra leaders, got the Presidential assent.
On 5 December 2013, Cabinet had approved the Telangana draft bill prepared by the Group of Ministers. The bill was then submitted to parliament for a vote by both houses. On 18 February, 2014 the 15th Lok Sabha passed a resolution to create the state of Telangana, followed by the Rajya Sabha on 20 February 2014. President Pranab Mukerjee gave assent to the bill on 1st March 2014 and Gazette notification to this effect was published on this day. On 4th March 2014, the Goverment of India declared that 2 June would be the Telangana Formation day.
There will be 13 districts in residuary Andhra Pradesh while Telengana will have 10 districts, including the Hydrabad city. The capital of Andra Pradesh will be Vijaywada. Telangana comprises
10 districts: Hydrabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar,Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda,Nizamabad,Rangareddy and Warangal.